Year : 2021  |  Volume : 8  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 283-285

A case of brachial artery infected aneurysm secondary to infective endocarditis from intramuscular steroid use

Department of Vascular Surgery, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia

Correspondence Address:
Thomas Lovelock
Department of Vascular Surgery, Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijves.ijves_123_20

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Infected aneurysms are a subset of aneurysms associated with infection. Approximately 10% of infected aneurysms involve the upper extremity. Infected aneurysms present a management challenge as patients are often unwell with concomitant infective endocarditis or septicemia. We present a case of a brachial artery infected aneurysm secondary to mitral valve infective endocarditis likely due to intramuscular anabolic steroid use. A 52-year-old male presented with a 24-h history of lethargy, blurred vision, and ataxia. He had a background history of intramuscular anabolic steroid use for the past 5 years. Swelling of his left arm localized to his cubital fossa was noted. Blood cultures were positive for Cardiobacterium hominis. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated a large vegetation on the mitral valve. Magnetic resonance imaging angiography demonstrated a right middle cerebral artery aneurysm. Computed tomography angiography of the left arm demonstrated an abrupt filling defect of the distal 2 cm of the brachial artery, with surrounding fat stranding and aneurysmal degeneration of the artery. Following successful aneurysm coiling, the patient underwent excision and debridement of the infected aneurysm. Histopathology was consistent with infected thromboembolism with aneurysmal degeneration of the artery. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement 10 days later. The brachial artery is the most common site of upper extremity infected aneurysms. Open surgical resection of the infected tissue is accepted as the gold standard. The rich collateral supply of the upper extremity permits ligation and debridement without needing simultaneous revascularization. We present this case to draw attention to an interesting manifestation of a rare pathology.

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