Year : 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 364-369

A descriptive study of concomitant vascular and bone injuries of the limbs in a tertiary care hospital in South India

Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, JIPMER, Puducherry, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Siddhant Rajendra Vairagar
Department of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery, JIPMER, Puducherry
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/ijves.ijves_71_22

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Background: We studied patients with concomitant vascular and orthopedic trauma to limbs to assess their outcome and factors that affect the outcome of the limb. Methodology: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study and data from 68 patients was collected. Factors such as demography, mode of injury, and clinical parameters such as pulses, capillary refill time (CRT), sensory-motor function, compartment syndrome, type of bone and vessel injury, and ischemia time were compared and analyzed. Results: Out of 68 patients (n = 68) with concomitant vascular and orthopedic injury included in the study, 63 (92.65%) patients were males, and the mean age in the study was 30.16 ± 16.33 years; 56 (82.35%) patients sustained road traffic accident and 12 (17.65%) patients sustained fall from height, 7 (10.29%) patients were hypertensive, and 2 (2.94%) patients had diabetes mellitus; popliteal (30 patients – 22.06%) and brachial arteries (30 patients – 22.06%) are the most (total 44.12%) followed by femoral artery (seven patients, 10.29%) and radial artery (one patient, 1.47%); sensory function was absent in 20 (29.4%) patients; CRT was more than 3 s in 49 (72.06%) patients. No mortality occurred during the hospital stay in any of the 68 patients. The overall rate of amputation in the study was 20.59% (14 amputations). Significant association of amputation rate was found with increased CRT (P = 0.01), fracture (P = 0.05), open fracture (P = 0.05), transected vessel (P = 0.017), nonextremity injury (P = 0.01), and compartment syndrome (P = 0.002). Fasciotomy was done for 49 (72.06%) patients, and no significant association was found with the amputation rate. Mangled extremity severity score (MESS) was 7 or more than 7 in 23 (33.82%) patients. All the 14 (100%) patients who required amputation in the study had a MESS of 7 or more (P = 0.01), and limb salvage index (LSI) was 6 or more in 17 patients; among the 14 patients who underwent amputation, 13 patients had an LSI of 6 or more than 6 (P = 0.01). The vascular repair was redone in 3 (21.4%) patients, excessive bleeding requiring blood transfusion happened in 2 (14.3%) patients, and hypotension occurred in 4 (28.6%) patients. Intraoperative complications were associated with an increased rate of amputations (P = 0.001). The mean ischemia time was 15 ± 6.5 h with a median of 15 h; the shortest ischemia time was 10 h, and the longest was 19 h. The mean ischemia time was 14 h in the limb salvage group and 18.5 h in the amputation group. Long ischemia time was associated with increased amputation rates (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in time between the time of injury and presentation to the hospital, the time between presentation and surgery, and the duration of surgery between the two groups (amputated vs. salvaged). Conclusion: The extent of soft-tissue injury and ischemia time are prime determinants of outcome in cases with concomitant vascular and skeletal injury. Early diagnosis, quick referral, addressing compartment syndrome, and proper vascular repair are the critical factors in salvaging a limb.

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